The extract potentiated the frequency of head twitch responses induced by 5-hydroxytryptamine. Depression is an extremely common pathological complex with psychological, neuroendocrine, and pathological symptoms [ 1 ]. It is a leading cause of disability worldwide and has a very significant impact on morbidity, mortality, and health care cost [ 2 — 4 ]. Disconcertion in monoaminergic neurotransmission especially serotonin and noradrenaline neurotransmission is considered the major cause of the observed symptoms of depression. Unfortunately the efficacy of these medications is unsatisfactory and multiple side effects are common [ 5 ].
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The extract also showed in vitro concentration-dependent antioxidant activity following the 1,1-diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl DPPH and ferric reducing assays. Findings further suggest the presence of active antidiabetic and antioxidant principles in M.
Diabetes mellitus DM is a multifactorial syndrome resulting from a variable interaction of hereditary and environmental factors. With on-going researches in diabetes and oral hypoglycaemic agents OHA , the management of DM is still a global problem.
One important area in diabetes management receiving particular attention today is that of herbal hypoglycaemic agents. Several factors such as dyslipidemia or hyperlipidemia which are involved in the microvascular and macrovascular complications as well as hyperglycemia are associated with the diabetes disease which is the major cause of morbidity and death [ 4 ]. There are also lipoprotein abnormalities with diabetes mellitus [ 5 ]. High blood glucose levels not only increase the production of reactive oxygen species ROS but also affect antioxidant activities of ROS scavenging enzymes [ 6 , 7 ].
The seed is a special soup thickener in the region. The leaves have ingredients of common antidysentery, antimalarial, and anti-inflammatory remedies [ 8 ]. Preliminary phytochemical screening of M.
Iwu [ 10 ] reported five hydrolysable tannins and cytotoxic phloroglucinol from the bark of another species Mallotus japonicus. MP is also claimed to have antidiabetic activity by local healers in the South-East area of Nigeria. The present study was carried out to evaluate the antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, cholesterol lowering, and lipid peroxidation properties of MP in the rat model. Fresh M. The mixtures were filtered with Whatman number 1 filter paper. The water was removed using a vacuum lyophilizer, yielding The powder was resuspended in distilled water before use.
The rats were fasted overnight before experimentation but were allowed free access to water. Ethical guidelines in animal handling and use were strictly adhered to in the execution of the study. Thirty mature male albino rats were randomly divided into 5 groups Table 1. The rats were then anaesthetized by halothane inhalation. Blood was collected from heart using disposable hypodermic syringes and transferred into EDTA tubes immediately.
The homogenised liver tissues were used to measure lipid peroxidation using malondialdehyde MDA levels as markers [ 14 ]. Total cholesterol concentrations were evaluated by the methods described by Allain et al.
The total antioxidant activity of the Mallotus oppositifolius MP extract was estimated by the ferric reducing antioxidant power FRAP assay [ 16 ] and the 1,1-diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl DPPH photometric assay [ 17 ].
The procedures were carried out in triplicates and the mean used in computations. Differences between the groups were separated by post hoc LSD. The yield of the extract was 2. The extract decreased the blood glucose levels of experimental rats significantly , in a dose-dependent manner Table 1. The study indicated a concentration dependent increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation marker-malondialdehyde MDA levels. Table 2 shows the effect of the extract on the liver MDA levels of diabetic rats.
The total cholesterol levels of experimental animals treated with the methanol extract of MP leaves is presented in Figure 1.
The results show that the levels decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The variations in the cholesterol values of the rats compared with the control groups were not significant. In the same manner, the extract elicited The ferric reducing ability of plasma, a measure of the antioxidant ability, showed that MP produced a dose dependent antioxidant effect.
All free radical scavenging assays were carried out in triplicates and the results shown in the figures represent a mean of the values obtained. The diabetes disease is snowballing very fast and huge amounts of resources are spent in almost all countries to combat this multifactorial metabolic disease. Alloxan, from the literature, has been shown to cause hyperglycaemia in laboratory animals due to increased oxidative stress by elaborated free radicals [ 12 ], thus a model for type 1 diabetes studies.
Medicinal plants are effective in controlling plasma glucose levels with minimal side effects and are commonly used in under-developing and developing countries like Nigeria as alternative therapy. It has also gained popularity for decades in the treatment of diabetes mellitus [ 3 , 18 ]; however, majority of the remedies have not been precisely evaluated.
Therefore we selected and evaluated the methanol leaf extract of MP for its claimed antidiabetic potentials considering also, its effect on total cholesterol and biomarkers of oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro , respectively.
The results showed that MP significantly reduced the blood glucose and was found to possess significant antioxidant potentials in vitro both in the DPPH and the ferric reducing assay. Diabetes which is associated with impaired glucose metabolism leads to oxidative stress which with an attendant protein glycation will produce free radicals [ 19 ].
Further chronic toxicological evaluations on hepatocytes and other cell lines of organs in the mammalian body may be a step in the right direction. Earlier phytochemical studies on the MP indicates the presence of large amounts of bitter tasting secondary metabolites known as alkaloids, as well as some phenolics, flavonoids and quinines in the leaves than in the roots [ 9 , 10 ].
Reviews on bioactive components in plants express that desirable biological and therapeutic activities observed with plants predominantly range between the alkaloid and flavonoid components [ 20 , 21 ]. Reactive oxygen species ROS have been implicated in many pathologies such as heart diseases, cancers, arteriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and arthritis [ 22 ].
Phenol compounds such as flavonoids isolated from plants scavenge for hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anion radical, and lipid peroxyl radicals unearths many of the flavonoid health promoting functions, which are important for managing diseases associated with oxidative damage such as diabetes mellitus [ 23 ].
Flavonoids in human diet may reduce the risk of various cancers as well as prevent menopausal symptoms [ 24 ]. Therefore, the antioxidant effect and the antidiabetic activities of MP are suspected to be due to its flavonoid component as observed both in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Alkaloids of plant origin such as Solanine from S. Hence, it is also possible that the alkaloids present in MP may be responsible for the observed hypoglycaemic potential and associated effects on cholesterol levels in test rats.
Furthermore, increased glycogenesis, glycolysis, decreased glycogenolysis, and reduced carbohydrate breakdown as well as potential reduction in glucose absorption are further proposed as possible mechanisms of antidiabetes activity with MP.
Also, close correlations between cholesterol levels in blood and the diabetes have been previously reported [ 27 , 28 ]. The reduction of cholesterol levels observed in the present study coinciding with earlier reports unearths potential cardioprotective effects also of M. The findings with MP extract in this study confirm its folkloric uses in the management of diabetes, thus making Mallotus oppositifolius a probable plant for drug discoveries.
Bioactive components of the leaf extracts of M. Further studies will be needed to isolate and purify the bioactive compound s in the extract for bioassay-guided experiments in a view to pin-point its mechanisms of antidiabetic action. MP poses as a potential for ground-breaking diabetes study.
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests as per this work, the project was not funded by any organization, and appropriate acknowledgments have been given to those deserving.
Nwaehujor et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Nwaehujor, 1,2 I. Ezeigbo , 2,3,4 and F. Academic Editor: Gary S. Received 12 Jul Revised 05 Sep Accepted 14 Sep Published 10 Oct Abstract Objective.
Introduction Diabetes mellitus DM is a multifactorial syndrome resulting from a variable interaction of hereditary and environmental factors. Materials and Methods 2. Plant Collection and Identification Fresh M. Group Treatment No.
Table 1. The effect of MP extract on the fasting blood glucose levels of test rats. Groups Treatments No. Water 6 0. Table 2. Figure 1. Total cholesterol levels in diabetic rats treated with various doses of MP extracts.
Figure 2. Figure 3. In vitro antioxidant activity of M. References M. Vinuthan, G. Kumara, M. Narayanaswamya, and T. View at: Google Scholar I. View at: Google Scholar A. Scoppola, F. Montecchi, G. Menzinger, and A.
Mallotus oppositifolius is widely distributed and occurs from Senegal east to Ethiopia and south to Angola and Mozambique, and also in Madagascar. In West Africa most plant parts, but especially the leaves, are commonly used for medicinal purposes. A leaf or stem bark infusion is taken to expel tapeworms and to treat diarrhoea. The crushed or chewed fresh leaves, sometimes mixed with butter, are put on cuts and sores as a haemostatic and antibacterial, and on skin eruptions and rashes for fast healing. They are also applied to burns to calm pain.
The extract also showed in vitro concentration-dependent antioxidant activity following the 1,1-diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl DPPH and ferric reducing assays. Findings further suggest the presence of active antidiabetic and antioxidant principles in M. Diabetes mellitus DM is a multifactorial syndrome resulting from a variable interaction of hereditary and environmental factors. With on-going researches in diabetes and oral hypoglycaemic agents OHA , the management of DM is still a global problem. One important area in diabetes management receiving particular attention today is that of herbal hypoglycaemic agents. Several factors such as dyslipidemia or hyperlipidemia which are involved in the microvascular and macrovascular complications as well as hyperglycemia are associated with the diabetes disease which is the major cause of morbidity and death [ 4 ]. There are also lipoprotein abnormalities with diabetes mellitus [ 5 ].