Quick jump to page content. Opublikowane: lis 30, Abstrakt The main aim of this article is to present an evolution of the terrorism threat in the Middle East in For this purpose, firstly, the essence and determinants of the contemporary terrorism threat have been analyzed. Some main Middle East terrorist organizations, actively operating in this area, have also been indicated.
|Published (Last):||5 April 2010|
|PDF File Size:||13.16 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||9.16 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
W r. Dariusz K. Jerzy Kisielnicki. Kulikova Federacja Rosyjska , Douglas E. Selvage Stany Zjednoczone. Rivarly between Islamic State and al-Qaeda over the supremacy of the global jihadist movement.
Patriot Act versus the Retention Directive, or the legitimisation of abuses in the sphere of privacy in democratic states: a comparative study. Fiszer The crisis of the European Union or the crisis of European integration? Causes and effects. G20 and the emergence of global governance], Difin, Warszawa , pp. Marta M. Spasimir Domaradzki. Od Redakcji. Fiszer Kryzys Unii Europejskiej czy kryzys integracji Europy?
Przyczyny i skutki. It is our pleasure to hand to the readers the next, third issue of our academic quarterly in which is not only exceptionally broad, but also — as always — very interesting. What is more, all texts in the journal are published in English, which should contribute to its even greater internationalisation. It should be of interest not only to researchers, specialists and experts, but also to students, graduate students, teachers and journalists.
We also recommend it to politicians and decision makers since it contains a number of original scholarly papers devoted to current economic, social, political and international problems with which Poland, the European Union and the entire world struggle today.
It shows how fast the international order and its determinants and prospects change. It also shows the complexity of the modern world and the problems which its leaders cannot cope with, and which are often the result of their previous omissions or wrong decisions. Such as, for instance, the current immigration crisis, with which the European Union cannot cope today, and which is the result of wrong policies of the United States and the EU towards the countries of the Near and Middle East and North Africa.
It also shows Poland against this background, its domestic and foreign policy, both in theoretical and socio-political and economic aspects.
The presented issue of our quarterly, according to the previous practice and rules adopted by the editorial office, consists of two parts: the first one, which is devoted to broadly understood economic issues, and the other. This time in the first part we are publishing six articles and studies. The study which the author carried out allowed her to formulate an interesting conclusion, namely, that within 10 years, that is between the two analyzed periods: — and —, there were no significant changes on the map of Europe in terms of countries which are the leaders of innovativeness, characterized by a high level of innovation capacity in the corporate and higher education sectors, that is those which are important from the point of view of economic development, among which countries of Western Europe and North America are in the lead.
Meanwhile, countries of Central and Eastern Europe, including Poland, were generally characterized by low levels of indicators describing both the results of processes of creating new knowledge and their ability to absorb new knowledge and technology from outside, as well as GDP per capita.
The author tries here to answer the questions pertaining to the new economic order emerging before our very eyes and its determinants. In the conclusion of his deliberations he states that the emerging new economic order resulting from the departure from the multilateral principles in favour of selective solutions is a consequence of the implementation of philosophy based on the domination of particular elements over the common ones.
The author stresses here that the hegemonic aspirations of Hanoi and imposing its domination on Laos and Cambodia during the Cold War encountered resistance, also armed, of these countries.
However, after the withdrawal of Vietnamese troops from Cambodia and the support for the aspirations of these countries to join ASEAN, Vietnam has changed from unwanted hegemony to the accepted leader of Indo-Chinese states. In this article the author analyses various aspects of Chinese interest in the Arctic region, among which economic, geographic and political aspects play the main role.
Their consequences — as the author emphasizes — are felt today throughout the world. As the title indicates, the goal of this article is an attempt to compare the Islamic State and al-Qaida, and to demonstrate the similarities and differences between the two organizations.
The main research hypothesis is the assumption that the Islamic State differs from al-Qaida above all by its goal, which is to create an Islamic state based on Sharia principles. Concluding her considerations,. The article also presents the actions of the German government in the fight against Islamic fundamentalism, including against groups of extreme Salafists and shows the attitude of German society towards Islam and its followers.
Consequently, the fight against terrorism has become an excuse for unceremonious violation of the standards connected with privacy protection. According to the author, even if the European Union broke up, nobody and nothing would be able to stop the process of European integration, at most it might be slowed down.
Triumphalism and the hope for eternal peace have ended, and the belief in the gradual but inevitable democratisation of the following countries and societies has been strongly undermined. Peace and security of Europe and the world are today — according to the author — seriously threatened.
Wedel put into words in a book published in to describe informal elites working at the interface of power, business, media and science. In the case of the latter, the author uses Janine R. The presented issue of the quarterly closes with three reviews of the latest, very interesting and valuable scholarly books which concern the interests of countries belonging to the so-called G20 and the emergence of global governance, relations Russia — NATO and international security after the end of the Cold War and sovereignty as an essential attribute of every state.
We assure you that it is worthwhile to become familiar with these publications. We wish all our readers interesting reading and we encourage everyone to cooperate with our editorial board and Lazarski University, one of the best universities in Poland. We congratulate all secondary school graduates and invite them to study at our university.
Fiszer, Full Professor, PhD. A positive relationships between these areas is evidenced by the results of a significant amount of research which has been published in recent decades1.
This research focused mainly on comparing the impact of various factors, including variously defined and classified innovation and technological capacities of countries on differences in the level of economic development.
Therefore, the subjective approach has been dominant, while little space has been devoted to the importance of innovation activity of major groups of actors of innovation systems from the point of view of the development of economies of individual countries. The literature on the subject allows us only indirectly to infer that the most important role in this regard should be attributed to the corporate sector because some of the identified innovation capacities of countries solely or largely depend on the business characteristics of companies.
The aim of this study is to examine the importance of innovation capacities of European economies in the cross section of three major elements of the innovation system corresponding to the sectors of companies, research and the government, from the point of view of their economic development. Thus, 1. The structure the article is as follows: the first part is an introduction to the subject of innovation capacity and, in addition to the general definition of the term, contains an overview of different approaches to the specification of specific capacities.
The aim of the second part is to define the basic elements of innovation systems, in the cross section of which innovation capacities of European countries were examined and compared. The third part describes the methodological issues related to the analysis of the statistical data gathered for needs of the research in this study.
The fourth part contains a description of the results of the conducted analyzes. In the last part the conclusions from the conducted analysis were formulated.
In the literature we can find some general wordings of the concept of innovation or technological capacities of economies, although the term is also quite widely used in the context of business operations.
These concepts have a similar meaning, hence their interchangeable use can be considered acceptable. Kim, L. Harvard: Harvard Business School Press, p. National innovation systems, capabilities and economic development. Research Policy, vol. Furman, J.
The determinants of national innovative capacity. Cohen, W. Absorptive capacity: A new perspective on learning and innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. In this sense, it the concept can be related to the systemic look at innovation, where a broad range of factors affecting the process of creating new solutions is taken into account. The literature points to the existence of quite different views on the elements making up a total of innovation or technological capacities of economies.
Keller also acknowledged that absorption capacities significantly affect the economic performance of the country, but narrowly defined them as specific skills and knowledge accumulated in the national human capital8. The mentioned concept of absorptive capacity also occupies an important place in the joint studies of Verspagen and Fagerberg who distinguished three.
Abramovitz, M. Catching-up, forging ahead and falling behind. Journal of Economic History, vol. The origins of the postwar catch-up and convergence boom. In: Fagerberg, J. The dynamics of technology, trade and growth. Aldershot: Edward Elgar. The origins of the postwar catch-up Verspagen, B. A new empirical approach to catching up or falling behind. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, vol.
Keller, W. Absorptive capacity: On the creation and acquisition of technology in development. Journal of Development Economics, vol. In this approach, the most important aspect of innovation capacity is the ability to create new knowledge and exploit new knowledge coming from outside, as a necessary condition for the creation of innovative solutions.
Castellacci and Natera adopted a similar view on the issue of innovation capacity of countries by identifying two main factors affecting the level of economic development corresponding to the contribution and results of the process of creating new knowledge for innovation 1 innovation capacities and 2 absorption capacities.
In this approach we can see, therefore, a clear division of roles in the construction of innovative capacity of the country between various sectors of the economy — here the science-research sector and that of enterprises. Absorption capacities, as in Fagerberg and Verspagena, are understood quite broadly here, as other factors affecting the level of economic development. Fagerberg, J.
Technology-gaps, innovation-diffusion and transformation: an evolutionary interpretation. Rio, 2—6 November, Castellacci, F. The dynamics of national innovation systems: A panel cointegration analysis of the coevolution between innovative capability and absorptive capacity. Ibidem, pp. The importance of innovation capacity resulting from the characteristics of the corporate sector is visible in Faber and Hesen who approached the topic from the perspective of factors affecting the results of innovation activity in the economy, that is resulting from national concepts of innovation systems
International Relations in Poland