Alexa Actionable Analytics for the Web. Liakopoulos as a person does not pose liaopoulos physical threat to liakopouloz Jewish Community but he helps creating liakopoulis climate where fear and conspiracy theories reign. I am a Jew and i am proud of it. Disclaimer I am not related to liako;oulos surviving members of the Abravanel family in Greece or abroad — more info on my nick here. I do not advocate or demand stopping his program because he advances frree views — this would be wrong — but I do believe that democratic citizens should create a moral consensus that hate speech is not dree in Greece. Other countries like Italy are currently much more brutal towards vulnerable groups like the Roma gypsies.

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The disruption of balance between production of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant systems in favor of the oxidants is termed oxidative stress OS. To counteract the damaging effects of prooxidant free radicals, all aerobic organisms have antioxidant defense mechanisms that are aimed at neutralizing the circulating oxidants and repair the resulting injuries.

Antioxidants are either endogenous the natural defense mechanisms produced by the human body or exogenous, found in supplements and foods. OS is present at the early stages of chronic kidney disease, augments progressively with renal function deterioration, and is further exacerbated by renal replacement therapy. End-stage renal disease patients, on hemodialysis HD or peritoneal dialysis PD , suffer from accelerated OS, which has been associated with increased risk for mortality and cardiovascular disease.

During HD sessions, the bioincompatibility of dialyzers and dialysate trigger activation of white blood cells and formation of free radicals, while a significant loss of antioxidants is also present. In PD, the bioincompatibility of solutions, including high osmolality, elevated lactate levels, low pH, and accumulation of advanced glycation end-products trigger formation of prooxidants, while there is significant loss of vitamins in the ultrafiltrate.

A number of exogenous antioxidants have been suggested to ameliorate OS in dialysis patients. Vitamins B, C, D, and E, coenzyme Q10, L-carnitine, a-lipoic acid, curcumin, green tea, flavonoids, polyphenols, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, statins, trace elements, and N-acetylcysteine have been studied as exogenous antioxidant supplements in both PD and HD patients. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features!

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Marques de Mattos A, et al. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. PMID: Could antioxidant supplementation delay progression of cardiovascular disease in end-stage renal disease patients? Roumeliotis S, et al. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. Online ahead of print. Is oxidative stress an issue in peritoneal dialysis? Semin Dial. Epub May 1. PMID: Review. Liakopoulos V, et al. Oxid Med Cell Longev. Epub Sep Show more similar articles See all similar articles. Vida C, et al. Antioxidants Basel.

Carracedo J, et al. Front Cell Dev Biol. Sachan R, et al. Vitamin e-loaded membrane dialyzers reduce hemodialysis inflammaging. Sepe V, et al. BMC Nephrol. References Pavlakou P. Oxidative stress and acute kidney injury in critical illness: pathophysiologic mechanisms-biomarkers-interventions, and future perspectives. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity.

Oxidative stress in end-stage renal disease: an emerging threat to patient outcome. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. Oxidative stress. Annual Review of Biochemistry. Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species. Contributions to Nephrology. Matrix Gla protein TC polymorphism is associated with carotid intima media thickness and predicts mortality in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

Journal of Diabetes and its Complications. Publication types Review Actions. MeSH terms Animals Actions. Humans Actions. Renal Dialysis Actions. Substances Antioxidants Actions. Biomarkers Actions. Copy Download.


Antioxidant Supplementation in Renal Replacement Therapy Patients: Is There Evidence?






Nikos Liakopoulos




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