E-mail :. Thoracic infections due to Trichomonas species often go unrecognised as they are seldom described in the literature. We describe a case that, to our knowledge, is the first reported case of empyema caused by this organism. A 59 year old man with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lung developed a right pyopneumothorax following treatment with corticosteroids and radiotherapy.

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PDF version. Trichomonas vaginalis was identified in 34 female subjects Pregnant women showed the highest rate The next highest infection rate Women aged over 40 years showed a rate of 3.

A total of males were also investigated; Among those with discharge, infection was identified in 11 subjects 7. The majority of positive cases were in the age group years. Genital trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease affecting men and women. In women it causes vaginitis and cystitis, and in men it causes urethritis and prostatitis [2].

Sometimes Trichomonas vaginalis causes no symptoms at all in either sex. It is rarely reported in females before puberty and after menopause, but is common during the child-bearing years and peaks during pregnancy [3]. Men are commonly asymptomatic carriers of T. Symptoms may appear in chronic and acute forms [4].

Demonstration of this organism in men has always been difficult [5]. The present study was chosen because of the lack of information available on urogenital trichomoniasis in Iraq.

Only three studies have been carried out among women, in Baghdad [6] and in Mosul [7] and Erbil [8] provinces where incidences of There have been no studies concerning urogenital trichomoniasis among males and females. Vaginal swabs were obtained from females and examined by the wet preparation and culture methods. All the women were attending the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic at Al-Tahreer Hospital and private clinics in Basra province during a month period June June Cultures were carried out on Trichomonas medium No.

Full information including age, gravidity, parity, complaint, marital status, family, social and past medical and obstetrical histories were reported. In private clinics in Basra, males with or without urethral discharge were investigated. Samples were examined by the wet preparation and culture methods. Full medical history was taken for each subject. Healthy men were screened for urogenital trichomoniasis by urine examination. After centrifugation, the sediment was examined microscopically and inoculated into the Trichomonas medium.

The overall incidence of T. One subject presenting to the clinic with positive trichomoniasis vaginalis was in childhood. Pregnant women showed the highest incidence A high infection rate Women near or post-menopause over 40 years showed an incidence of 3. Of males investigated at the medical clinics visited, Trichomonas vaginalis was identified in 11 subjects 7.

The rates observed in this study are lower than those reported in various parts of the world, but they still represent an important level from the public health point of view.

Examination of apparently healthy women was not possible because they refused to have vaginal swabs done due to the absence of a vaginal discharge complaint. This variation may be explained by differences in hygiene and sanitation and in sexual relations before marriage. Wet mount preparation has been the sole diagnostic test used in some studies of T.

In the present study, culture was the most sensitive diagnostic test for trichomoniasis. In no case was the vaginal wet mount preparation positive and the culture negative. However, having a less than desirable sensitivity, the wet preparation may be replaced in the near future by newer methods, such as the enzyme immunoassay or the direct fluorescent antibody test. Until the sensitivity, specificity and cost of these newer techniques are defined outside the research arena, the wet preparation and culture methods will remain the first line diagnostic tool [12,13].

Pregnant women showed a higher infection rate This may be attributed to the hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the vaginal epithelium, as well as to the increase of glycogen deposits in such cells, produced by high estrogen levels [14,15]. The presence of a relatively large number of positive cases among recently married females is clearly the responsibility of their husbands.

In rare cases, the infection may be acquired through innocent means, such as toilet facilities, medical instruments or exchange of underclothing [13,16]. Other factors such as the susceptibility of the host, his physiological condition, the virulence and size of the inoculum, as well as social habits and hygiene conditions, might have an effect on the pathogenesis of T.

The chance of isolating T. Urine examination yielded low success for isolation [17]. This study gives a better understanding about the incidence of urogenital trichomoniasis. Clean instruments, attention to the associated problems of the genital and urinary tracts, collateral treatment of sexual partners, standard of living and education are of importance in controlling the disease among Iraqi women and men.

Subscribe via RSS. Volume 26, number 5, May WHO Bulletin. Pan American Journal of Public Health. Main Search Contact. YouTube Rss feeds Twitter Facebook. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. Urogenital trichomoniasis in an Iraqi population. PDF version Nadham K. Introduction Genital trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease affecting men and women.

Subjects and methods Women. Results The overall incidence of T. Discussion The rates observed in this study are lower than those reported in various parts of the world, but they still represent an important level from the public health point of view. References Brown MT. Practitioner , Omer EE. Trichomoniasis in clinical practice.

Postgraduate doctor , , Hira PR. Observations on T. Tropical diseases bulletin , , Honigberg BM. Trichomonads of importance in human medicine. In: Kreier JP, ed. Parasitic protozoa. Vol II. Wilson A, Ackers JP. Urine culture for the detection of T. British journal of venereal disease , , Al-Shabandar N. Histopathological studies on Trichomonas.

University of Baghdad, Iraq, The incidence of Trichomonas vaginalis among selected groups of women in Mosul. Iraqi medical journal , , Studies on Trichomonas vaginalis in Erbil Teaching Hospital. Journal of the Faculty of Medicine , Baghdad , Study of sexually transmitted diseases in Sudanese women. Tropical doctor , , Lazar A, Trichomonas vaginalis infection. Incidence with use of various contraceptive methods.

Journal of the Medical Society of New Jersey , , Dykers JR, Single dose metronidazole for trichomonal vaginitis. New England journal of medicine , , Trichomoniasis trends in diagnosis and management. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology , , Sparks JM. Journal of reproductive medicine , , Gynecology , 3rd ed.



Trichomoniasis trich is an infectious disease caused by the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection STI which is most often spread through vaginal, oral, or anal sex. Methods of prevention include not having sex , using condoms , not douching , and being tested for STIs before having sex with a new partner. There were about million new cases of trichomoniasis in Most people infected with Trichomonas vaginalis do not have any symptoms and can be undetected for years. Discomfort for both sexes may increase during intercourse and urination. For women there may also be a yellow-green, itchy, frothy, foul-smelling "fishy" smell vaginal discharge.







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