The Kiriji War , also known as the Ekiti-Parapo War, was a 16 year long civil war between the Yoruba people , specifically divided between the Western Yoruba, which was mainly Ibadan and the Eastern Yoruba, who were the Ekiti people and the Ijesha. During the war, all the subethnic groups of the Yoruba either supported the Ibadan or the Ekiti. The main reason for the civil war was an attempt to halt the expansive efforts of the Ibadan city-state, which attempted to replace the Oyo Empire as the dominant region in Yorubaland. The fall of the Oyo Empire , which had dominated the region for years left a gap in the government of Yorubaland.
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Still testing. One long test. Memory lane Ken Saro Wiwa. It was said to have been derived from the onomatopoeic booming of the cannons echoed by the rocky terrain of the war field; the cannons which were acquired by the Ekiti Saro merchants in Lagos through their trading with the Europeans.
The Kiriji war was researched to be the first civil war among the Yorubas to herald the usage of weapons of precision, such as the cannons. It is generally believed that a war is staged to solve issues, or display superiority over another entity; issues being power, people or economy. It had sometimes been wife or gods that had caused the issue of war in some cases.
But oft times, otherwise is the case, as it brews more intractable problems than it intended solving. According to E. The following problems remained unresolved after the wars before the Kiriji war: The Egbas had strengthened there war fort through contact with the Europeans; There was no edifice to replace the traditional Old Oyo Empire ; The Egbas were partly dismembered and dislodged from their original homes; The emergence of Ijaye and Ibadan from the defunct Oyo empire changed the political map of the Yorubaland.
The Kiriji war in turn acquired the problems not settled by its predecessors. There were a number of other fresh problems created in sequel to the previous wars. The principal of which was: the Irredentist movement among the educated Egbas and Ijebus to free their fatherland from the imperial yoke of Ibadan.
What can be said to be the major cause of the war: the Kiriji war which many historians refered to as the longest civil war ever fought by an ethnic group in the world was a major dispute between the Ibadans and the Egbas. This made the formal declare a war that would stop subsequent civil wars in the Yorubaland. Following the account of Johnson ; the Oyo historian in his popular book titled History of the Yorubas It can be deduced that the Owu and the Ijaye wars were preludes to the Kiriji war.
Many historians hold the fact that the Kiriji war was a war of revenge by the enslaved-librated Egbas and Ekiti people. This led to the fierce killing of the Ajeles and the establishment of an alliance called Ekiti Parapo confederate of Ekiti , to challenge the suzerainty and hegemonistic stance of Ibadan. Then, the Egbas that had denied trading ammunitions with them interfere with her convoy. In , the Ibadans exercised patience until a convoy carrying a large number of ammunitions had arrived successfully in Ibadan.
The latter then attacked the Egbas settlements. Both states began to waylay each other in farms and highways. He was the stir behind the war. He ordered the war on these three casus belli:. Upon the declaration of this, an ambassador called Leasu was sent by the Egbas. He rather aggravated the problem my disrespecting the Aare Ona kakanfo.
Upon the declaration of this, an ambassador called Leasu was sent by the Egbas, rather aggravating the problem by disrespecting the Are Onakakanfo. In order not to analyze this war out of focus, it is pertinent we communicate that it was not the entire Yoruba land that participated in these wars. Taking note of the three major was: the Owu war of — ; the Ijaye war of — and the Kiriji war of — everything making a total of 28years. The Ondos and the Mahins did not participate in the wars.
The Ekitis and the Ijesas did not involve themselves in the first two wars, while the Oke Oguns and the Egbados were passive spectators in the wars. His skill and bravery at war earned him this, though his full name being Saraibi Ogedengbe. He was a man of valour who saved his people from the suzerainty of Ibadanland.
He was said to have been sold as a slave to Ibadan, where he got his military training. Eventually, he came back home to be the hero of his fatherland. Latoosa was the Are Ona Kakanfo of the then Ibadan.
The Kiriji war was fought in different fronts simultaneously, Ibadan faced the Ekiti Parapo in the east. In the south it faced the Egbas and the Ijebus. The Ilorins joined the Fulanis in the north while Ife joined the war in The war lasted 16 years, from An armistice was signed by all the Yoruba kings on September 23rd It is believed to be the end of epic wars in the Yoruba land.
This war did not only bring desolations and disorderliness on the Yoruba land, there were some positive development brought by the war: there was increase in commercial activities with the Europeans; it brought about the making of path across the coasts by foreign observers; the appetite of the Yorubas for European products in return for theirs increased; improvement and development of rivers and roads to increase commercial activities.
It equally makes us understand the complexity of the Yoruba political power; the diplomatic skill of the leaders; the unbound ambition of individuals and dedication to community freedom; with the sanctity of immemorial customs and traditions to the Yoruba people.
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The Kiriji War (1877-1893)
The Jalumi War, also called the Battle of Ikirun, was a battle that took place on 1st of November, in the north east of present day Osun State, Nigeria. The forces of Ibadan defeated in detail a force of rebellious Yorubas including soldiers from Ilorin, Ekiti, Ila and Ijesa. It was this defeat that prompted the Ekiti to call on Ogedengbe, a tall, fiery fellow, with shooting eyeballs of Ijesa stock, who had been reluctant to lead the Ekiti-Parapo, having had his military training in counter insurgency and infantry at Ibadan, and was wary of leading his people against his benefactors. Also, Lagos, Ijebu and Egba were said to have assisted Ekiti Parapo against Ibadan; seen by all as a threat to their commonwealth. The Ekiti War generals held several nocturnal meetings where war strategies were reviewed and perfected. The war was long and bitter; an epic war between two powerful Yoruba confederate armies of mainly Western and Eastern Yoruba cities.
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The most crucial and devastating was the Igbajo Kiriji War, which lasted for nine years. It was the longest among all the Yoruba ethnic wars. It was fought between and The genesis of the war?