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Original text, in Russian, at transoxiana. When referring to great names, there is always a temptation to replace the very natural treatment of such insignificant but traditional speech figures such as "distinguished", "miraculous", "unique", and so forth.

Actually, this temptation underlines the boundary that allows us to discriminate between "tradition" and "innovation," although tradition is not a sheer repetition, as innovation is not mere renewal. These considerations deprive me of the necessity, on the one hand, to portray the greatness of Lorca, Hafiz, Navoi, or Ibn Hazm, and, on the other, to immediately get into the essence of what I am about to say. It's West without poison and is East without action.

Thus is marked the beginning of work on Lorca's last and perhaps his consummated book, that never saw light while poet was alive -"Divan del Tamarit. Lorca's "Divan del Tamarit" consists of 12 ghazals and 9 qasidas. Of course, Lorca did not follow formal characteristics relevant to the rules of formation of canonical type of divans. However, he observed some conventional techniques that distinguish ghazals and qasidas from other forms of poetry.

We shall talk about them below. If we follow after Lorca into the history of oriental poetry, we would have to study a great number of various sources such as fiery sermons of Zaratushtra "I work as fire," said Lorca , Bedouin "Muallaq" of Imruulkais "I hear nothing except for cry," echoed Federico , perfection of Hafiz' and Navoi's ghazals "Oh, your lips at the time of my death," pleaded poet , and many others.

Therefore, we will limit ourselves to examination of the traditional form of oriental poetry as ghazal. As is known, ghazal , as a poetic form, began forming in the ninth and tenth centuries in the Arab poetry; however, it reached perfection and, in some sense, canonization in the creative works of Hafiz.

Only after Hafiz, it has been kept strictly to specific strophic, composition, and semantic attributes, namely: 1 the writing of a ghazal with bayts , or double lines, 2 rhyming of bayts as in the form of a-a, b-a, c-a, and so forth, 3 the use of radif , repetition of a group of words or a word at the end of the line, 4 designation of ghazal authorship with the help of takhallos pen name , etc. At present time, poetics of a traditional ghazal as a poetic form seems to have been studied in full, and here we have to name, first of all, the works of E.

Bertels, Ya. Ripka, I. Stebleva, A. Haitmetov, and others, where the formative role of various ghazal elements, peculiarities of its composition, semantics, and so forth has been revealed. If the results of ghazal research are combined, then primarily it can be said that ghazal is, on the one hand, a purely lyric form characterizing, first of all, an internal state and not an external action, on the other, ghazal is characterized by having two semantic fields: "I" of the lyric protagonist and "you," or "she," his lover who are mutually impervious.

The tension set by the rupture of these two fields separation, break up, unattainability, etc. Much has been said about this, in one or another way, in the Arabic treatises about ghazal of the tenth centuries, as well as in the most modern research. In addition to the opposition of "I-you" or "I-she," there is a number of oppositions like "I-opponent", "I-compassionate person" the sheikh, the wine dispenser, the doctor, the people, etc.

If we sum up the entire world of a ghazal , then its morphology, as a rule, is as follows: on the one side, it is "I" -the lyric protagonist, on the other, it is "you" or "she" -the lover, and between them, there is an insurmountable space of their relations, as well as kind, compassionate, pandering, and aiding forces gravitating towards lyric protagonist, and the hostile, resisting, counteracting beginning brought closer to the lover-opponent.

Universality of such a morphology is obvious. In various research of ghazal , there were attempts to separate these "semantic fields" with different degrees of detail; yet, unfortunately, we were not successful in finding research neither about the universality of such a model, nor about its applicability to various aspects of a spiritual life. In other words, these "acting forces" of a ghazal are brought together in a list; however, the universal feature of the dynamics of this system, as a thinking construct, as a figure of thought, has remained outside the field of speculation.

Meanwhile, measures taken to divide ghazals into different genre subtypes such as love, Sufic, parodistic, sermonic, landscape, publicistic, etc. In this invariance, there is a universal construction: on the one hand, the subject of activity, on the other, its object, the very activity, the form of which, in fact, defines the genre of the ghazal , and it is that what can be called "conditions of the activity", and these conditions can both promote the activity positive conditionality and counteract negative conditionality.

As most of the classical ghazals are about love in nature, then the morphology of a ghazal in some degree can be interpreted, speaking in a boring language, as the morphology of a communicative activity. In some sense, this is so because it is a sin to talk about love in such words as aesthetics, ethics, and refuge found in knowledge, but the important thing here for us is that it is between human beings. Again, returning to a boring language and considering ghazal as a poetic model of a communicative act, one cannot fail to see the internal paradox of this poetic form.

On the one hand, ghazal , as a depiction of a burning aspiration of the lyric protagonist to a meeting with his lover in Sufic ghazals , confluence with the Almighty , is geared towards a potential parley even in that it presupposes the existence of a lover or the Almighty, or as we could have called it in terms of communication theory -the recipient of information, but at the same time being a lyric expression it remains within the boundaries of soliloquy or monody.

This contradiction is perhaps the meaning forming contradiction of a ghazal as a poetic form, engendering its emotional charge and tension. Comparison of a ghazal to a spring, outlined latently in a previous discussion, is indeed legitimate in many respects, and here is how. There is a wide spread opinion of a ghazal as stringing of homogeneous bayts. A deeper variety of this standpoint is a comparison of ghazal to a wheel with the central bushing the main bayt and the spokes branching off of it Ya.

In her book about Babur's ghazal , the Soviet researcher I. Stebleva revealed that a ghazal , and Babur's ghazal in particular, has also a linear composition: matla, the first bayt , is the origin and the foundation, the second bayt is the development of the origin, the third bayt is ante-climactic, the fifth bayt , maqta , is final and, as a rule, resolving. Both of these notions, cyclical and linear, apparently reflect only one of the instances of the ghazal structure, and if it is at the bayt level, we may indeed say about the cyclical characteristic of a poetic expression, then from a standpoint of a ghazal as a compositional unity, it possesses all the elements of forming a plot.

However, it must be noted, that forming a plot in a ghazal is imaginary, and this circumstance both follows from and continues our previous discussions about internal contradiction of a ghazal as a expression of speech. Specifically, with the notorious appeal to itself in a ghazal , its lyric, monodic feature participation of another person in communication is conditional, and an imaginary development of a plot is simply an accumulation of potential energy is the compression or the tension of a spiral spring of the expression to its climactic limits.

Before interpreting the nature of classical oriental ghazal poetics as the "zero level" for understanding Lorca's ghazals , it must be said that such an internal incongruity is found in all formal genres of a ghazal. Rhyming in the form of a-a, b-a, c-a, etc. In a similar fashion, repetition of radif is a combination of an invariable group of words or a word and varying surroundings, and it is also a a dialectic of the text included in a different context, and through it is a discovery of new facets of a radif.

We may call this opposition as dialectic of statics and dynamics, a norm and a deviation, a canon and an improvisation, or, more fundamentally, existence and formation. By diversifying these oppositions and by merging them with the philosophy of ghazal , it can be said that in a ghazal there is a motive, but there is no deed; there is a thought, but there is no action. This contradiction is also continued in the 'aruz meter of a ghazal. The common principle, advanced through ghazal elements of a varying degree, compels not only to assume it as a certain hierarchy of these constructions, but also to correlate this hierarchy with the fundamental bases of the very thinking and philosophy of medieval oriental poets.

We realize that we shall have to check "harmony with algebra" pedantically, even when any words may be superfluous -that is how self-sufficient a ghazal is- we shall analyze it meticulously, and yet, let a number of impending paradoxes begin with this: commentaries "sharh" are necessary even when they are unnecessary. First of all, we shall note that the ghazal model articulated earlier is sustained here almost in its entirety. There are also two main components of a ghazal theme: portrayal of lyric protagonist's feelings of love and depiction of his lover's beauty which are contrasted.

Stebleva in the analyses of Babur's ghazals, and it releases us from the similar path of research. In other words, the ghazal begins paradoxically: with the exhaustion ghazal story. We cannot help but to notice another paradox at the same level of metalanguage, which is characteristic for other ghazals as well, particularly, having been, on the one hand, a description of a lyric protagonist's burning longing for a meeting with his lover, the ghazal is geared toward a potential parley even in that it presupposes the existence of the lover, yet at the same time it remains a lyric expression that cannot break off the boundaries of soliloquy or monody.

Let us investigate how the space-time relationship is being built in this ghazal. What concerns the space of the lyric hero, even though initially Navoi does not specify the hero's spatial coordinates apart from the hypothetical ones translated through the time frame 'tong otkuncha' he further builds up the space in the following way: 'chiqdimu But then the space starts diminishing through 'kuzlaringdan necha suv kelgay' , which represents a conditional path to the emptiness, where there is no beloved, 'yuksa kim kuidi qadam' , and, at last, the final bayt encloses and embraces all the preceding coordinates by the "house of heart", "the house of soul" - 'kungul uyi'.

Now it is possible not to just assume but to conclude that the initial movement has started from this very place, from this space. In other words, the space articulated as external and expanding in terms of the number of coordinates and in terms of spiritual quality a road - moonlight - separation turns out to be the inner space of the soul, the space where the beloved did not come.

And on the other hand, the initially built space of thought and imagination, where the lyric hero and his beloved co-exist separately, gradually materializes through the universal kimsa someone , whose existence is hypothetic, conditional, and abstract. Further, this "someone" receives the status of interlocutor, though to the same extent hypothetically personified, after this, he turns into the only 'tolibi sodiq' , who does not exist either.

But who does exist, it is the poet in his own aloofness, whose salutary aloofness is formally consolidated by tahallus , when he addresses to himself: "Hey, Navoi Such an understanding of the role and importance of tahallus in this ghazal allows assuming that here these mediating forces kimsa, tolibi sodiq, etc.

Thus, here, as in the first case, one can discover duality in the fictitious nature of the reality translated through the details of space a road - moonlight - people; someone - a loyal beggar - Navoi contracted into the absolute space of the spirit. Time in the ghazal is accordingly dual. The very first bayt determines a sort of a time framework 'kecha - tong otkuncha'. Yet, within this framework, time is constructed in the following way: 'lahza - lahza chiqdimu' - 'oydin erkonda' - 'ulgonda korongu' - 'kimsa kurganda' obviously, not at night - 'avval qadam quyganda' - 'boda birla hurram et kungul yuin' apparently, in the evening again.

As it can be seen from these time or pseudo-time coordinates, time in the ghazal is sometimes consecutive and linear kecha - tong , and sometimes again and again returns to the very beginning of the promised date, to the beginning of that ' kelmadi ', which goes back and forth within time, sometimes running ahead, sometimes returning to its beginning.

This beginning is the very end. Interestingly, if one constructs the line of actions by the lyric hero from this initial 'kelmadi' 'chiqdimu, chekdim yulida This consecution comes to a joint continuity, a plane field of the present, put into the circular eternal continuity or the reality of this 'kelmadi' rather than into the framework of the indicated 'kecha - tong otkuncha'. Time is logic, is determinism, while illogicality of this 'kelmadi' results in the corresponding timeless, non-linear space of feelings.

It is also worth mentioning that as a rule, there is determinism, there is time's non-linearity within a bayt , and this is them which prepare a break through the time's one-dimensionality to a certain volume of time. In other words, not coinciding time vectors of individual bayts result in a multidimensional continuum of the state. Thus, let us note this duality and internal contradictoriness of constructing space and time in the ghazal.

What concerns this ghazal 's architectonics it has an extremely vivid, skillfully and consistently built composition symmetry which also bears a semantic and general aesthetic load. If one adheres to the cyclical understanding of ghazal composition building with emphasizing the semantic center - 'nukte', as Ya.

Ripke argued, then one can notice that bayts are dissymmetrical in terms of the semantic load relative to the fourth bayt , which is central in terms of its architectonic position. Thus, in the third and fifth bayts the main words are body parts face, eyes , correlating in both cases with the nature moonlight, water ; in the second bayt , as in the eighth one, the main word is "a road", where the lyric hero comes to, and at last, matla' and maqta' , as a framework, determine and conclude the ghazal 's theme itself: the beloved did not come, neither dream did, but intoxication will come from the waiting itself, as well as from wine, granting joy to the heart.

Did not come she, did not come sorrow This pair by pair correlation of bayts already shows that along with the semantic and compositional symmetry relative to the central bayt , constructed in an extremely contrasting way:.

Ul parvarish hajridankim yig'ladim devonvor, Kimsa bormukin anga kurganda kulgu kelmadi. Thus, for example, a road in the second bayt , which used to be her road, where the lyric hero came to and suffered from waiting, in the eighth bayt became the road of universal absence of both the loyal bagger and the lover, otherwise "that who took the step first would have met the beloved In our turn, we can also generalize and say that it might seem that a guiding line of emotional pressure goes through the ghazal 's circular composition and becomes distinctly apparent while comparing pairs of symmetrical bayts.

Here, a kind of closure takes place, an overlapping of cyclical and linear understandings of forms of ghazal plot formation, but since, like we already said, a plot formation here is imaginary, this imaginary movement of the plot represents just an accumulation of potential energy, a compression or strain of the spiral spring of poetic expression to its culmination limit.

Further, it has to be said in even more general terms, that the contraposition of "I" and "you" - the lyric hero and the beloved - in the ghazal is reflected in all sense - and form making structures of the ghazal. Thus, along with the mentioned, at the meta-language poetic level, this is, for example, the contraposition of logic and meta-logic, represented in the very first line: 'ul sarvi gulru kelmadi'. Along with the mentioned contraposition, it is an inner paradox here: if one reads this expression bearing in mind formal logic, then 'sarvi gulru' - a cypress with a flower-like face - even with all its beauty - should not come.

A reading machine would interpret this in the following way: 'trees do not walk'. And from this point of view, the sentence seems to be true.

Yet, reading it in a meta-logical way, while wittingly allowing the false character of this 'sarvi gulru' , with the same gullibility we are shocked by her deception: 'Kecha kelgumdur debon ul sarvi gulru kelmadi Generally speaking, the theme of meta-logical substitution of one thing for another which, in the ghazal poetics for the purpose of its own comprehension, has been particularly well developed in the form of the theories of poetic figures and Sufi symbolism is a separate major topic, but we will briefly elaborate on it a little later.

Yet here, at this level, it will be enough just to note this dialectical contraposition. If one looks at the metrorhythmical level, then a combination of two misra s in one bayt with their rhyme pattern - a-a, b-a, c-a, etc.

Just in the same fashion, a repetition of redif 'kelmadi' is a combination of the same word with variable surroundings. Each time it is the same 'kelmadi' and each time it is different, revealing its new facets again and again. This type of contrapositions has many names. They can be called the dialectics of dynamic and static, discontinuous and continuous, norm and deviation, canon and improvisation, and so on and so forth, up to extremely generalized philosophical existence and formation.


Divan De Tamarit (Obras / Federico Garcia Lorca ; 3)



Divan del Tamarit



On the poetics of Lorca's "Divan of Tamarit"




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