Ketone bodies are produced by the liver and used peripherally as an energy source when glucose is not readily available. The two main ketone bodies are acetoacetate AcAc and 3-beta-hydroxybutyrate 3HB , while acetone is the third, and least abundant, ketone body. Ketones are always present in the blood and their levels increase during fasting and prolonged exercise. They are also found in the blood of neonates and pregnant women.
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Nutrition plays a key role for performance in endurance sports. Because the glucose stores of the body, i. Some recent nutritional strategies aimed at increasing the availability of ketone bodies have been viewed with some enthusiasm. The aim of this review is to present the current state of knowledge on the interest that can be represented by ketogenic diets RCet or ketone dietary supplements CC on performance in endurance sports.
RCet are poorly tolerated by athletes, which justifies the development of exogenous ketone supplements as ketone salts or ketone esters ECC. The ketone salts or ECC intakes increase the rate of CCs in the energy supply during exercise, which leads to a decrease in the glycolytic activity and glucose use. Given the well-known effects of CC on energy metabolism, some of these responses suggest that CCs may improve performance during single endurance exercises, and others tend to conclude the opposite.
Ketone salts are now known to either alter or at the best not improve endurance performance. On the other hand, the currently available studies do not support positive effects of ECC for performance during endurance exercises. At best, ECCs could limit the fatigue induced by a training cycle of marked increased workload, but without improving performance in endurance exercises. The potential effects of CC on cognitive functions should be studied more precisely, with a potential interest in some sports such as team sports.
The effects of CC on the epigenetic regulation of some genes important for the responses to endurance training should also be studied in further experiments. Previous Article Editorial Board. Journal page Archives Contents list. Radermecker, S. Systermans, S. Bekka, J. Article Article Outline. Access to the text HTML. Access to the PDF text. Recommend this article.
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"corps cétoniques" in English