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Multinodular goiter has been criticized as being a somewhat unhelpful term as some multinodular thyroids are not enlarged, resulting in the unwieldy term "multinodular non-enlarged thyroid" 7. Patients are usually euthyroid, but the nodules may also be hypo- or hyperfunctioning, resulting in systemic symptoms from hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, respectively. Multinodular goitres develop from simple goitres as a result of repeated instances of stimulation and involution 4. A nodule in multinodular goiter may harbor malignancy.

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Multinodular goiter has been criticized as being a somewhat unhelpful term as some multinodular thyroids are not enlarged, resulting in the unwieldy term "multinodular non-enlarged thyroid" 7. Patients are usually euthyroid, but the nodules may also be hypo- or hyperfunctioning, resulting in systemic symptoms from hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, respectively. Multinodular goitres develop from simple goitres as a result of repeated instances of stimulation and involution 4.

A nodule in multinodular goiter may harbor malignancy. A family history of malignancy and prior neck radiation exposure are known risk factors 2. Sonography remains the first radiological investigation to screen the nodules and look for any suspicion of malignant change in the nodules which is not uncommon. It is important to screen for the presence of malignant features if any in any of the nodules and subsequent FNA can be done from the suspicious nodule.

Treatment of multinodular goiter may be pursued if the thyroid is hyperfunctioning, or if the goiter is causing local mass effect.

There is no standard treatment and choice of treatment depends on local practice patterns, the activity of the goiter, and the results of FNA of any suspicious nodules.

Conservative management is also an option as some goitres decrease their rate of growth or may even decrease in size 6. Please Note: You can also scroll through stacks with your mouse wheel or the keyboard arrow keys. Updating… Please wait. Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again. Thank you for updating your details. Log In. Sign Up. Log in Sign up. Articles Cases Courses Quiz. About Blog Go ad-free. As of the latest update, Google Chrome and Microsoft Edge have made a breaking change to how file uploads are handled.

Once your system installs this update, you will not be able to upload new images. Please use another browser until we can get it fixed. On this page:. Approach to the patient with nontoxic multinodular goiter. Risk factors for malignancy in multinodular goitres. Eur J Surg Oncol. Pubmed citation 3. Hurley DL, Gharib H.

Evaluation and management of multinodular goiter. North Am. Pubmed citation 4. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon 5. Side effects of radiographic contrast media: pathogenesis, risk factors, and prevention. Biomed Res Int. The incidence of thyroid disorders in the community: a twenty-year follow-up of the Whickham Survey.

Pubmed citation 7. Anil T. Ahuja, Rhodri M. Practical Head and Neck Ultrasound. Edit article Share article View revision history Report problem with Article. URL of Article. Article information. Tags: mng , goitre , multinodular goitre , endocrine , thyroid. Support Radiopaedia and see fewer ads.

Cases and figures. Case 1: retrosternal extension Case 1: retrosternal extension. Case 2 Case 2. Case 3 Case 3. Case 4: nuclear medicine Case 4: nuclear medicine. Case 5 Case 5. Case 6 Case 6. Case 7: affecting lingual thyroid Case 7: affecting lingual thyroid.

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Thyroid nodular disease. The thyroid gland is fairly homogeneous but nodules are frequent. Nodules greater than 1. Thyroid nodular disease, the etiology of which is multifactorial, encompasses lesions, from the small incidentaloma to large multinodular intrathoracic goiter. The main diagnostic issues are related to the functional and morphological characterization using TSH measurements and image methods. Fine needle aspiration biopsy is the method of choice to rule out malignancy, the incidence of which is similar in single or multinodular goiter MNG.

JEFF LINDSAY DEMONY DOBREGO DEXTERA PDF

The significance of nontoxic thyroid nodules. Final report of a year study of the incidence of thyroid malignancy. Ann Intern Med. Thyroid incidentalomas: prevalence by palpation and ultrasonography.

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