Microalgae possess a high potential for producing pigments, antioxidants, and lipophilic compounds for industrial applications. However, the cultivation of microalgae comes at a high cost. To reduce the cost, changes from a closed bioreactor to open pond system and from a synthetic medium to environmental or wastewater-based medium are being sought. However, the use of open pond systems is currently limited because of contamination by undesirable organisms. To overcome this issue, one strategy is to combine acidophilic algae and acidic drainage in which other organisms are unable to thrive.
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Galdieria sulphuraria is an extremophilic, spherical, spore-forming, eukaryotic red alga. It is an acidophile, as well a thermophile, and inhabits highly acidic springs at high temperatures. Its ability to survive in extreme environment as well as its production of phycocyanin PC have made G. Success of G. In addition to extremophilic adaptations, fungal metabolite transporters contribute to G. Experiments in growing G. Grown autotrophically, the photosystems of G. Adaptations to an acidic, metal rich environment are essential to the survival of G.
In order to deal with high heavy metal concentrations in its environment, G. It is also capable of neutralizing biohazardous metals in some instances . To maintain internal pH, G. To maintain membrane voltage, G. The high heavy metal concentrations found in many of these environments have also necessitated the evolution of adaptations to tolerate these conditions.
As mentioned in the Description and Significance section, G. In the case of PC, G. Another advantage of G. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 90 : Molecular variation in Galdieria sulphuraria Galdieri Merola and its bearing on taxonomy. Hydrobiologia — Heterotrophic high-cell-density fed-batch and continuous-flow cultures of Galdieria sulphuraria and production of phycocyanin.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 77 Science : Algae and Cyanobacteria in Extreme Environments. Far-red light-regulated efficient energy transfer from phycobilisomes to photosystem I in the red microalga Galdieria sulphuraria and photosystems-related heterogeneity of phycobilisome population.
EST-analysis of the thermo-acidophilic red microalga Galdieria sulphuraria reveals potential for lipid A biosynthesis and unveils the pathway of carbon export from rhodoplasts.
Plant Molecular Biology 55 : Chromosome numbers and nuclear DNA contents in the red microalgae Cyanidium caldarium and three Galdieria species. European Journal of Phycology 36 From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource. Jump to: navigation , search. This student page has not been curated. Category : Uncurated Pages. Personal tools Log in.
Rapid fluctuation of environmental conditions can impose severe stress upon living organisms. Surviving such episodes of stress requires a rapid acclimation response, e. Persistent change of the environmental context, however, requires longer-term adaptation at the genetic level. Fast-growing unicellular aquatic eukaryotes enable analysis of adaptive responses at the genetic level in a laboratory setting. Cold stress was applied for more than generations to identify components that are critical for conferring thermal adaptation. Whole-genome sequencing revealed variants located on genes 6.
In order to allow comparative analyses with other genomes sequenced by the Joint Genome Institute, a copy of this genome is incorporated into the JGI Genome Portal. Please note that this copy of the genome is not maintained by NCBI and is therefore not automatically updated. Galdieria sulphuraria is a unicellular red alga found in hot sulphur springs. It is acido-thermophilic and can grow both autotrophically and heterotrophically in the dark. Other than living in extreme conditions of temperature and acidity, it can also tolerate high concentrations of metal ions. All these characteristics make it an ideal organism for genome sequencing and understanding the process of adaptation to extreme conditions and also genome evolution.